Chen R, Gore F, Nguyen QA, Ramakrishnan C, Patel S, Kim SH, Raffiee M, Kim YS, Hsueh B, Krook-Magnusson E, Soltesz I, Deisseroth K.Nat Biotechnol. 2020 Oct 5. doi: 10.1038/s41587-020-0679-9. Online ahead of print. PMID: 33020604

Achieving temporally precise, noninvasive control over specific neural cell types in the deep brain would advance the study of nervous system function. Here we use the potent channelrhodopsin ChRmine to achieve transcranial photoactivation of defined neural circuits, including midbrain and brainstem structures, at unprecedented depths of up to 7 mm with millisecond precision. Using systemic viral delivery of ChRmine, we demonstrate behavioral modulation without surgery, enabling implant-free deep brain optogenetics.